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Paraphrasing of the Dermatoglyphic Pattern of Chinese Carpet

On the base of understanding the meaning of dermatoglyphic pattern. We change another aspect to analyze the dermatoglyphic pattern. In the traditional culture’s psychology point of view, we can find that the Chinese carpet embodies the traditional thought, religious belief, taste consciousness, and the effect producing by the differences of cultural notion between west and east on the Chinese carpet pattern.

Ⅰ. Dragon pattern
In feudalism society of China, dragon usually symbolized the stateliness of the monarch. While it represents goodness, luck, and exorcise in common people. For example, the “double happiness of dragon and phoenix” pattern is mostly used in wedding festival. Other dragon patters include “dragon rising to sky on the cloud”, “dragon turning round his head on the cloud”, “moving dragon playing with pearls”, “ twisting dragon grabbing expensive goods”, “double dragon playing with pearl”, “double dragon offering one’s birthday”, “double dragon gamboling in the sea”, “nine dragon get-together”, and so on.


Ⅱ. Phoenix pattern
Phoenix is a lucky bird in the fairy tale of ancient China. It is said that the phoenix appearance hints that the country will be prosperous. The common phoenix patterns are “phoenix blowing peony”, “dragon and phoenix applying for lucky”, “five phoenix picture”, “hundreds of birds facing phoenix”, “peony and phoenix facing sun”, and so on.
From the remote ancient legend and the unearthed cultural relics of the New Stone Age, it can be see that the Chinese nation have entered into a savaging totemisim period in desolated primitive society. At that time, members of every primitive tribe have formed a strong cohesive force in order to strive for living. They worshiped their own ancestor. They believed that the world was created by their ancestor. This is different from the doctrines of God in West completely. During the process of worshipping to their own ancestor, they formed their own living pattern and production techniques. They unified their faith together and resist the other ideas into their own field. Therefore, their clans got consolidated. They took their own ancestor as mysterious, strength, perspicacity, braveness. They regarded their ancestor as the combination of human with god. Their ancestor dominated the whole natural world. Therefore, the totem symbol embodying worship to their ancestor was unified from remote ancient time. In the carpet pattern, totem symbol in common use is dragon and phoenix.
In the period of totemisim, the dragon clan and the phoenix clan had the greatest influence, especially the dragon clan. Finally, they almost unified the whole Center Plain of China. Therefore, it is frequently said that the Chinese Nation is the offspring of dragon.
In the Chinese fairy tale narrated about one hundred eras, Pangu, regarded as the ancestor to create the world, has a figure of dragon. According to the records of Wuyun to every year, emperor Pangu has a dragon head, a snake body; he can wind and rain through breathing out slowly, thunder and thunderbolt by blowing; when he open his eyes, it is daytime, while when he close his eyes, it turn to night. According to popular legend, the ancestors, who made people by mud, Fuyi and Niuwa, have a dragon figure too. What about the figure of the ancestor of Chinese Nation-------Huangdi? Huangdi were described as follows in Shanhai Jing – Shiwai Xijin: his face likes human, his body likes snake. He is similar to a dragon. There are many other persons who have a human face, a snake body. For example, Tian huang, Di huang, Ren huang, etc. All these dragon images indicate that the dragon is Chinese ancestor, and imply that the dragon totem clan is the hero in that time. Wen Yiduo, a famous scholar, said: “as the image of the Chinese nation dragon is formed through the combination of the appearance of snake and other kind of animals. The snake body forms his main part, accepting the four foots of animal, the hair of horse, the toe of the deer, the claw of the dog, the scale and palpus of the fish.” The formation of dragon totem makes us suppose the expanding, annexing, and combining course of one tribe. In the end of the New Stone Age, in China, primitives in the northwest and north area took aquitics and animals for totem. In these animal, dragon is the combination of all animals, is a symbol of federation of victory.
In the eastern coastal area, bird totem occupies a dominant place. The clan, which unified east, is phoenix totem clan. Phoenix maybe is the combining image of many bird totems. It is said in Zuozhuan that Shaoyu had offered sacrifice to phoenix. Shaoyu was the king of the remote clan, which now is in Shandong district. He unified the east area of China.
Along with the development of history, the dragon totem clan in west area replaced the phoenix totem clan in east area. But the dragon totem clan didn’t have enough strength to assimilate the phoenix clan. They only can make the phoenix clan be subject to them. Therefore, the image of dragon and phoenix keep in the people’s faith. Up to the present, dragon and phoenix pattern still is the happiest pattern of Chinese nation.
After entering the Slave society and feudalism society, dragon and phoenix become into the embodiment of emperor concubine and emperor. Emperor is likened to a dragon, the queen is compared to a phoenix.
The first nation, that took dragon for totem, is Xia Dynasty. It is said that the first emperor had achievements in preventing flood by water control. When he ascended the throng, a dragon descended in the sky. So, there are two dragons interlacing together on the emperor’s flag. There were dragon patterns on the household utensils too. Since then, the clothes of emperor used dragon patterns. Therefore, the body of emperor was called dragon body, and the clothes dressed by emperor were called dragon robe.
Beijing carpet has a long history. The phoenix pattern plays an important role, and is in common use. Since Yuan Dynasty, the feudal officials regulated the dragon and phoenix pattern strictly. Only can the emperor use the five-foot dragon pattern. The relatives and the dignitary use the four-foot dragon or three-foot dragon pattern. Others were prohibited from using every kind of dragon pattern. This regulation lasts to the collapsing of the Qing Dynasty. The phoenix pattern was not regulated strictly, but it mainly supplys to the queen and concubine


Ⅲ. Hints of the Eight Immortals pattern

Hints of the Eight Immortals represent the articles hold by the eight immortals imagined in the fairy tale during ancient China. Because people usually use the articles used by the eight immortals to hint their existence, it is called “ hints of eight supernatural being”. If adding water ripple patterns in the space of these articles, this pattern is called “ eight immortals in the water”. Therefore, this pattern has the meaning of exorcise, assuring blessedness, and safety.
The eight immortals refer to the eight celestial beings of Taoism in the folklore in China. Everyone had a cimelia. A single cimelia drawing or weaving on the carpet hints the eight persons. The eight immortals are:
Zhang Guolao------ his image was described firstly in recording the significant person randomly, a book of Tang Dynasty. He ride a white donkey, walk hundreds thousands of miles a day. According to the folklore, he rides the donkey at the reverse direction. In Du Yi Zhi, he was described as follows: “There is a older man in Xuanzong dyansty. Nobody knows his age. Going to Jingzhou, the emperor receives him. When asked something, there isn’t anything he dose not know. According to editing informally, Zhang Guolao ride a white donkey, walk hundreds of thousands of miles a day. When folded, the donkey turned into a paper, and can put in a box; when besprinkled with water, the donkey become into a donkey over again. When he was summoned to an interview by Tang Taizong and Wu Zetian, he didn’t reply, and renounced the world. Later, he went to mountain Zhong Tiaoshan, never went anywhere, except moving between San Fen and Jin. He lived several hundred years as the story goes.
The cimelia of Zhang Guolao is a drum and walking stick.
Zhong Liquan------ the originating record about him is from Bei Song Dynasty. It is said that he was defeated in the battle of conquering Tu Fan. He rode a horse fleeing into a remote mountain. He lost his way. At night, he met a monk in a remote forest. The monk led him walking about several miles. Finally they get to the practicing place of Mr. Dong Huashan. The monk left bowing with hands folded in front. Long later, one person, with white fur coat, and green walking stick, come up, and asked: “ are you the general of Han Dynasty------Zhong Liquan? Do you like loading in this place? ”. Hearing that, Zhong Liquan stood in amazement. He knew that this person was a supernatural man, then he beseeched him to teach him the method to pull through his life. Then the old man taught him the recipe for living long, and swordsmanship. After leaving there, Zhong Liquan met the Hua Yang and Wang Xuanpu. After receiving the recipe for longevity, he lived in Zi Jin Si Hao peak in Kong Dong, and got the secret of Yu Xia. Then he turned into a supernatural being.
The cimelia of Zhong Liquan is a fan.
Lv Dongbin------he was born in Pu Zhou in Tang Dynasty. He was very handsome. As a child, he was very clever. He was eight-ruler and two-inch tall. He liked living by himself. The Whole Tang Poem embodied a lot of his poems. The three-drunk gloriette to the Yue Yang building in Dong Ting Lake was built in the light of the meaning of his verse. He wrote that when he passed the Yue Yang Lake in the pot, nobody knew him. Reciting the poems, he flied over the lake. Lv Dongbin could not win in the examinations of the emperor’s highest exam twice. When he was 64 years old, wondering in the alcohol shop in Changan, he met Mr. Zhong Liquan. Then he implored him to teach him the art to pull through the life. Zhog Liquan found him think nothing when he was explored ten times. Therefore, Zhong Liquan guided him to He mountain range, and taught him the secret of Shang Qing. After getting hold of the secret he wandering in Jiang, Huai, and Shi Lingjian. There, he removed the mythical flood dragon. He lived about four hundreds of years through releasing souls repeatedly. Nobody knew him.
His cimelia is a double-edged sword.
Li Tieguai------ history records didn’t record him. Maybe he is a fiction person. The earliest story about Tie Guaili is from Zaju (a poetic drama set to music, flourishing in the Yuan Dynasty). As Xian Zong, the second chapter of Jian Hu Miji recorded, the surname of Tieguai is Li. He is a tall and big man. When he was a child, he knew what happened in the last life. Then he practiced in grotto. At that time, Li Laojun and Mr. Wanqiu usually went to there, and instructed him the Toism. One day, going to meet Li Laojun in Mountain Hua, Li Tieguai told his prentices that I left my soul here, if I could not come back in seven days, then you burnt my fetch (body). But the prentices burnt his body as his mother’s opinion in the sixth day. Li Tieguai come back in the seventh day really. But his soul hadn’t place to rely, then he put his soul in a dead beggar’s body, and become alive. So, he had an ugly and limp image. According another book the combining book of immortalsin ancient time and nowadays. The name of Tie Guaili is Hongshui, his byname is Guai, or Tieguai. He usually begged in the town. People always looked down on him. Later, he threw his walking stick in the sky, the walking stick turned into a dragon, then he flew away riding on the dragon.
His cimelia is walking stick and calabash.
Cao Guojiu------biogrophy of all immortals recorded that Cao Guojiu was the little brother of the Cao queen of Song Dynasty. He violated the low, and murdered a man, then he escaped and felt disgrace. Finally, he lived a reclusive life in mountain. He practiced tolerance and admiring Tao. Later, he met with two supernatural men, Zhong Liquan and Chun Yang. They asked: “are you cultivating yourself according to a religious doctrine? And what are you practicing? ”. He replied: “I am cultivating Tao”. They asked again: “where is the Tao? ”. Cao Guojiu pointed with hand, and said nothing. The two supernatural men laughed and said: “heart is sky namely, and sky is Tao namely. You have understood the truth of Tao completely”. Therefore, they introduced him into the group of supernatural being.
His cimelia is Yin Yang board.
He Xiangu------she lived in the beginning of Tang Dynasty. Her hometown was GuangZhou. She was a daughter of He Tai. Later, she moved to Muxi. At that time, she was almost 14 years old. Records of Luofu described: “He Xiangu met a immortals in the dream. He taught her to eat mica powder, which could make people longevity. Therefore, she ate the mica powder. She swore that she never got married. She usually walked between the peak of the mountain. She walked as flying. Everyday, she went out at morning, and got back at night and picked many fruits for her mother. Later, she went to the hollow, and never went anywhere. Wu Zetian sent somebody to invite him. In the midway, she disappeared. During Zhong Zong period, she flied to the sky in the daytime.
Her cimelia is lotus flower.
Han Xiangzi------he was the nephew of Hanyu, a famous writer in Tang Dynasty. According to the biography of all supernatural beings, his byname is Qing Fu. He fell on evil days, and lived a unruly living. When meeting Mr. Chun Yang, he followed him wandering. One day, he mounted a tree to pick peaches. Carelessly, he dropped down from the tree, and died. The carcass dissolved. Once a time, Han Xiangzi looked in Han Yu. Han Yu asked him to write a poem to express his ambition. Then, Han Xiangzi wrote a poem. The poem implied that Han Xiangzi could brew wine, and make the flower blooming immediately. Han Yu said: “ Do you have the ability to reverse the nature?” Then, Han Xiangzi got a winegoblet. When opening the cover, the wine existed in the winegoblet really. Han Xiangzi lay the soil on the ground, then two flowers bloomed, like peony and one verse appeared between the flower------Qin Lin is circled with cloud, I don’t know where my hometown is; snow covers Lan Guan, the horse don’t walk forward. Han Yu didn’t know the meaning of the sentence. Han Xiangzi said: “it can be approved someday.” Afterward, Han Yu went to secure official position in Chan Zhou. On the way, he brushed up against a snowing. Suddenly, one person appeared, walking toward him against the snow. He was Han Xiangzi. Han Xiangzi asked: "can you understand the meaning of the sentence between the flowers?"
Once a time, Han Yu was degraded to Qi Di, namely Lan Guan. Han Yu sighed, and said to Han Xiangzi: “I write a poem for you.” Then there is the famous poem. The content is: “in the morning, the memorial was presented to the emperor; at night, I was degraded to Chaoyang, eight thousand miles away. Disregarding my old age, I determined to remove the abuses. Qin Lin is circled with cloud, I don’t know where my hometown is; snow covers Lan Guan, the horse don’t walk forward. Nobody knew the intention my coming here, my copse could be found at the edge of the river, filling with malaria.” Han Yu and Han Xiangzi loaded in Lan Guan one night. Han Xiangzi bided a farewell to Han Yu, and give him a bottle medicine to resist malaria. Han Yu said disappointedly: “can we meet together?” Han Xiangzi replied: “I can not make the nature’s mystery secret known.” Then, Han Xiangzi left.
His cimelia is a bamboo flute.
Lan Caihe------his story was appeared in Xu Xian Zhuan originally. According to the book, nobody knew his hometown. His clothes ragged usually. One foot wore shoe; the other bared. In summer, there was cotton in his clothes; but in winter, he usually lied on the snow. His breath likes steam. Everyday, he went begging in the town, singing a song. He held a board, three-ruler-long, in his hand. He liked to sing Ta Ta song in tipsy. The phrase of the song is: “Ta Ta song, Lan Caihe, how many lives are there. The beauty of the girl likes a spring tree, the time is as fast as shuttle. Ancient people go away and never come back, at present, many people come to the world. In the morning, I go to the sky riding on a phoenix, at night, when I come back, the ground is covered with frost. The beautiful peak stands tall and erect in the sky, the silver and golden imperial palace is high and steep.” The phrases of the song are strong and manly. Nobody knows the meaning. He brought coins in his flank, made together with string. When his coin lost, he never picked. Meeting poor people, he gave his coin to them. Sometimes, he gave to the wine shop. He toured around the world. Somebody saw him in his young and old, they didn’t find any differences in his appearance. Later, he song between Haoliang. One day, he enjoyed a cool on wine shop, he can heard the crane and the Sheng sound. Suddenly, he stood up, throwing his shoes, clothes, belt, and board in to the sky, and flew to the sly. His shoes and clothes disappeared immediately.
His cimelia is a floral basket.
Eight Immortals crossing the sea: It is said that the Eight Immortals attended a peach meeting. Liu Dongbin proposed that every one could not cross the sea by cloud. They could throw an article in the sea, and crossed the sea by what was thrown. Therefore, Li Tiuguai threw his walking stick in the sea, and crossing depending on wind and wave. Han Xiangzi threw a floral basket. Lv Dongbing threw a “Xiao”. Lan Caihe threw a board. Zhang Guolao, Cao Guojiu, Han Zhongli, He Xiangu threw paper donkey, jade board, drum, bamboo mantle respectively. Then the all crossed the sea by what they threw successfully. The popular phrase------ “ Ba Xian Guo Hai, Ge Xian Sheng Tong” mean that like the Eight Immortals crossing the sea, each one showing his or her special prowess. This phrase passed on and on, till now. It edifies people that difficulty needs the wit and strength of every one to conquer.


Ⅳ. Various cimelia pattern
Various cimelia is a general term of every cimelia used by immortals. It does not include “ Eight cimelia of Budhha” and “ Bo Go” pattern. Various cimelia pattern which is in common use include pearl, coin, book, drawing, red leaf, coral, lucky cloud, ingot, and Qing patterns. Because the cimelia is used by immortals for getting rid of evils, then it has the meaning of getting rid of evils, and getting in good fortune. Various cimelias are used group by group. The common combination is putting musical instrument, chess, book, and drawing in one group. We usually called this combination “ Wen Fang Si Yi”.

Pearl: pearls are the shining things formed by the secretion of the calm in the shell. It usually is used as adorning, and costly. In China, pearl is a good word. It usually means good thing and good person. For example, people usually called a lovely boy pearl son, a lovely girl pearl girl. If people want to state some lost thing have found, they usually use “pearl back”. The sound is as loud and sweet as a pearl is a metaphor also. In ancient time, people think that if an emperor has virtues, the pearl will appear. So, pearl stand for an emperor’s virtue. “Virtue” is the core of the ruling class of Buddhism . Therefore, pearl is used in the carpet of royalty. Pearls usually is combined with dragons. For example, “double dragon playing with pearl” stands for the emperor having virtues.

A chain of pearls pattern
: This kind of pattern looks as if the pearls connect each other. This means that the country is integrity. This pattern is usually used as the rim pattern.

Coin pattern: This pattern looks like Chinese numismatics, with a round outside lane and a square inside lane. Chinese ancient people think of that the sky is round, the mother earth is square. Therefore, the coin pattern means that the sky and the mother earth have one family, the government officials and the common people happy together. In addition, the round outside lane of the coin embodies “affability”, the square inside lane means “doughty”. People have doughty and gentle traits together, are affable but not fawn on others. This is the gracious standard of Chinese nation. Meanwhile, coin pattern stands for riches and honour.

Cloud: floating, curving beauty cloud has a strong ornament effect, as well as is the symbol of lucky. Cloud pattern is always arranged in pairs with dragon pattern. The ancient people said that: “cloud comes from dragon”. It means that dragon turns into fountain after into the earth, the vapor of the fountain becomes into cloud after up to the sky. Cloud and dragon pattern stands for riches and honors. Wisp cloud symbolizes freedom and nobleness.

Qing: Qing is a musical instrument made of chime stone in ancient time. It is carved with stone and jade. Hanging on a shelf, it can make a sound after striking. Qing originates from Shang Dynasty (11 B.C.). It represents courtesy ( in Chinese Li), and happy ( in Chinese Yue).

Eight instruments: In ancient China, it is a general name of musical instruments. It includes gold, stone, earth, leather, silk, wood, gourd, and bamboo. The bell belongs to metal musical instrument, Qing to stone, Xun to earth, drum to leather, Qinse to silk and wood, Sheng to gourd, and Guan to bamboo. Confucius hold that different musical instrument should match the ceremony, to make harmonious between ceremony and musical instrument, to inspire the heart, and to sublime the spirit.

Four arts: it is the general name of musical instrument, chess, book, and drawing. It embodies the level of artistic appreciation in ancient China. In ancient China, scholars displayed their temperament and interest of elegance life and noble personality of having knowledge and courtesy through playing musical instruments and chess, reading books, and drawing pictures. Four arts pattern is used widely in Beijing carpet pattern. Automatically, most people who enjoy Beijng carpet are pursuers in four arts. Four arts pattern reflects the sense that the Confucianists have paid great attention to artistic appreciation.


Ⅴ. Treasure shape and flower head pattern
This pattern takes lotus, peony, dahlia for mold, changes the shape and combines the flowers in accordance with the principle that regard the center of a circle as center, use successive layers ,multiaspects, radiating, and symmetrical form. Treasure shape flower head pattern was popular in Nan Bei Dynasty. Originally, it was used by Buddlism. Later, it developed into a lucky pattern



Ⅵ. Kui-dragon dermatoglyphic pattern

In the middle of the carpet, there is a round circle. In the circle, there is an one-legged monster dragon. It is a general name of one kind of carpet having a large circle in the middle. The design can be dragon, as well as phoenix, and flowers. So, this pattern can be deemed as the center-main-part pattern.


VII. Various flower heads and dermatoglyphic pattern

Usually used flowers have: lotus, peony, water lily, chrysanthemum, orchid et al. These flowers are not only beautiful floriated, but also have more ample and lucky meaning, for example: the peony has the meaning of the king of flower, very beautiful flower, riches and honor et al. The water lily stands for the meaning of nobleness, early breeding, offspring thriving and prosperous et al; and the pedicel lotus stands for couple conjugal love and family harmony. Chrysanthemum, bamboo, orchid are used to stand for nobleness and faint scent.
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Lotus: lotus symbolizes summer. Poet Yang Wanli in Song Dynasty wrote: "joining to the sky, the leaves of the lotus seems more green; shining by the sun, the flower of lotus looks more red." Lotus cannot be stained coming from the mud. Its noble image is respected and admired by people very much. Usually, people compare the conjugal love to two lotuses growing in one root, blossoming around one center.

Peach blossom: It is the symbol of universal renewed spring. Ancient poetry was saying: “When the Peach is blooming, the spring is coming”.

Chrysanthemum
: It is the symbol of autumn. In ancient china, people had the convention of viewing and admiring chrysanthemum on Chongyang festival, ascending to yearn friends. Chrysanthemum calls people to yearn their folks. In Song Dynasty, the famous poetess Li Qingzhao described the feeling and yearning of a young woman when she was viewing and admiring chrysanthemum: “drinking at the easterly fencing after dusk, there was secretly fragrant breeze blowing here. I have stayed till dye-break, but I was still immersing this atmosphere. when the west wind was blowing, I changed thinner than chrysanthemum”. The chrysanthemum with her visualization of aloof and proud shows her prolonged scene. At periods of Jin, the great poet Tao Yuanming, when he outguessed the social and went home, wrote a poem: “Pick chrysanthemum at the easterly fencing and leisurely enjoy the Nan mountain.” which shows so much leisureliness and freedom. In the book “dream of the red chamber”, miss Lin Daiyu had many sigh with emotion on Mr. Tao’s poem: “ when Mr. Tao finished the poem, the haughtiness came down to today.”(Miss Lin’s poem: “chant chrysanthemum”).

Narcissus: It is the symbol of winter. She has many aliases, for example: “golden calyx and silver desk”, “ woman star”, “Xiang woman”, “clear wave fairy” et al. European named it as fragrant asphodel because of her full-bodied aroma. The Narcissus grows in autumn, blooms in winter, deposits nutrient in spring, is in dormancy in summer. It is the proud son in winter, the messenger in spring. Because Narcissus is clean lily and elegance, so fem cherished her. In modern history, the famous woman revolutionist Qiu Jin intoned in her poem named “Narcissus” : “delicately grow in snow, but exceed the faint scent of the plum blossom.”

Peony: Her flamboyancy exceeds any flowers, so people named her as “the king in flowers”. The king of medicament science in Ming dynasty in china, Li Shizhen (1518—1593) wrote the famous medicament book named “compendium of materia medica” : “Peony is soul of universe, so it is the head of all flowers.” Peony is very beautiful, natural and graceful, knobby, so she is named as riches and honor flower. The great poet Luo Yin in Tang Dynasty applaud : “ Though she has not sensation, she is very appealing”. So peony is usually comparison with gallant charming pose of noblewoman. Queen and imperial concubine liked the carpet whose center is peony. The peony dermatoglyphic pattern is widely applied among northern carpet pattern.

Plum blossom: She is “the chief of all flowers”. The great poet Chen Liang in Tang Dynasty extolled her as “ a flower is suddenly blooming, then the aroma is coming.” Plum blossom blooms in snow, has beautiful pose during hoar frost descends, because of her pure and noble, so she is so romantic. Plum blossom’s integrity has been extolling throughout the ages.

Orchid
: She is also named as “Chunlan”, “Danlan”, “cluster aroma”. She is the high grade flower in plant evolution history. Orchid is faint fragrant and have high viewing and admiring value, so people favor her. “book of changes. chapter copulative” was written: “ If two person have one mind, the profit can break golden; If two person have one mind indeed, the flavor is like orchid”, so the ancient people usually thought “orchid friendship is like cater-cousin”, and “orchid words” is compared with style of conversation constantly. In ancient, lady’s bedroom was named as orchid home. “Orchid’s incense and sweet-scented osmanthus aroma” is comparison with good moral shining and living forever, prosperous offspring.

Pine: The pine tree has always been green throughout the ages, whose life is very strong. Liu Zhen (?—217)who was one of “seven person during the periods of Jian’an” wrote a poem applauding pine: “In the world there is no something that is not fear of coldness except pine, which shows pine’s nature”. Pine stand for longevity, nobleness and brawniness.

Bamboo: He is always green in the four seasons. With tall and straight, unostentatious and gentle form, so he stands for longevity, upright and outspoken, politeness, flourish and independence. Bamboo, pine and plum blossom altogether are named as “three friends in severe winter”. Bamboo, chrysanthemum, orchid and plum blossom altogether are named as “four men of honor”.

Morning glory: Her local name is bugle flower. Morning glory is voluble stem, often climbs fully fence. Her flower is multicolored. She has the nature of strong life, artlessness. Morning glory blossoms in dawning, like the little bugle blowing the sound of daybreak. Her color is changed with intensity of sunlight. The ancient poem was saying: “at daybreak, take off blue clothes and pull on clamworm clothes”. Morning glory stands for artlessness.

Rhododendron: she blossoms in early spring, just cuckoo moo ceaselessly. So the ancient people imagined that the red rhododendron is changed from cuckoo’s blood. They thought the cuckoo is the bird that ululates to return home, so rhododendron is the flower whose meaning is “wanting to return home”. The poet Yang Wanly in Song Dynasty wrote: “What is crying dew and Ululating red, on the flower blossoming, we will know the sound of cuckoo; How much has the blood of cuckoo, I am fear that it is dyed by the tear of conscription.”

Albizia flower: Another name is horse tassel flower. Her flower can be made into machine. Her meaning is harmonious and happy

China rose: Another name is Changchun flower, monthly red flower. She, rosebush and rose are the same genus and named as “sister flower”. China rose is honored as “the queen in flowers”. The ancient poem was praised: “She is deeply hidden in leaves, but borrows the red color from sunlight on branches”. China rose stands for spring scenery aeon, flourish and magnificence.

Ganoderma lucidum
: The ancient said nimbus had the virtue of agerasia and raising someone from the dead, so ganoderma lucidum is named as immortal grass. the name of ganoderma lucidum was first recorded from the poem “ganoderma lucidum piece” written by Cao Zhi during the periods of Sanguo: “Ganoderma lucidum grows in universal, and this kind of grass is favored by Luo numen; so she has nabobism and her brilliance is like the numen.” In Qing Dynasty, Li Ruzhen’s book—“the chance from mirror flower”: “Ganoderma lucidum comes from famous mountain, the supernatural being eat her. Because she blossoms thrice every year, so she is named as “three elegant”.

Peach: She is the traditional benison gift in china. According to folklore, there has been coming down many story about eating the peach for longevity, many celestial being gathering for benison. So peach is usually named as longevity peach.

Blessing, salary and longevity (Fu, Lu Shou in Chinese): Bat, deer and peach stand for them. According to traditional idea in china, people think that if all the life is creditable, the level is that if there are blessing, salary and longevity. They are three lucky stars in life.

Lotus seed: She has the same sound as Lianzi in china. Lotus seed has the meaning of “procreating continuously son”. According to traditional idea in china, people thought: “ There are three kinds of impiety among which no offspring is the first. Thus it can be seen that “procreating continuously son” is so good blessing in china.

God bamboo, pachyrhizus: the “God” in god bamboo is the same as sky, the “terra” in pachyrhizus is the same as terra. Both of them are combined to form the meaning of “everlasting”.

Phoenix tree
: Another name is blue Tong. There is folk vulgarism saying: “If there is phoenix tree in family, the phoenix will fly here”. So phoenix tree is named as the lucky tree. She can bring peace and happiness. The ancient aphorism was saying: “a leaf of “phoenix tree” is falling, then all people know that autumn is coming”. So ancient people named phoenix tree as “ the tree knowing autumn”. Timber of phoenix tree can be made into musical instrument whose sound is outstanding.
Usually, phoenix tree is painted with phoenix.


VIII. Brocade dermatoglyphic pattern

Brocade makes use of several set different longitudes or woof to make up various different flower patterns. It has turtle brocade, plum blossom brocade, Ruyi grass veins, chrysanthemum brocade, quadrel brocade et al.


IX. Breaking branch flower dermatoglyphic pattern
In fact , breaking branch flower also refers to a kind of a picture composition method in traditional design—cut a branch or a part from some kind of flower as the basic unit of separate dermatoglyphic pattern . The composition form of a picture is excellent traditional flower and bird drawing in our country, which is not like foreign drawing having strong man-made ornament. Usually used flower have: peony, china rose, yulan, water lily, camellia, chayote, calabash, plum blossom, megranate, chrysanthemum, grape, morning glory et al. Breaking branch flower dermatoglyphic pattern can solely be used, also combinatorially used. For example, “four men of honour” is the dermatoglyphic pattern combined with plum blossom, orchid, bamboo and chrysanthemum, which stands for the people’s magnificent sentiment.


X. Bat dermatoglyphic pattern

Bat is a kind of lucky beast in Chinese ancient myth. It would bring luck and happiness. In carper design, bat dermatoglyphic patterns are very abundant. It is often used for blessing happiness and longevity.
Bat: “Fu” of bat has the same sound as “Fu” of happiness in Chinese, so bat stands for good luck. Bat is often painted along with cloud dermatoglyphic pattern , which has the meaning of good future ( Between cloud and luck are partial tone in Chinese ). The most familiar bat dermatoglyphic pattern is “five lucky children holding in both hands longevity peach”, which is often used for the Kiu central design. According traditional thought in china, “five luck” refers to birthday, luck, making friends with virtue, longevity.


XI. Bunch flowers dermatoglyphic pattern

The characteristic of bunch flowers dermatoglyphic pattern is that it adopts rotundity for a picture composition, so its picture shows all sides emanation of direction or revolving type. According to usefulness, it can be divided into big bunch flowers and small bunch flowers. Big group flower can be solely used, also two big bunch flowers combined into a large dermatoglyphic pattern.. Small group shape can be used in the forms of twos or threes gathering into group or crossing with butterfly and birds.


XII. “shou” character in Chinese (longevity in English ) dermatoglyphic pattern

“Shou” character in Chinese is a special ornament method in our country. Carpet dermatoglyphic pattern often uses quadrate and circular “shou” letter as bottom dermatoglyphic pattern . “Shou” character dermatoglyphic pattern is named as “wan” letter in Chinese in the people’s costume, implies the lucky meaning of continues and much change.
Quadrate and circular “shou” character: It is the modification of “shou” letter in Chinese, which means long life.


XIII. Beasts dermatoglyphic pattern

Usually used dermatoglyphic patterns have tiger monkey, deer, horse, cow, sheep,cat, panda, hare et al.

Eight beautiful horses: The ancient book recorded that King Zhou Mu Wang rode eight beautiful horses to travel in each country at the end of BC 10th century. Eight beautiful horses were Chi Ji.Bai Yi,Shan Zi, Qu Huang, Hua Liu,Lu Er,Dao Li and Yu Lun. The King, Zhou Mu Wang Liked these eight beautiful horses very much because these horses were beautiful and could run ten thousand miles each day without having rest. The later generations called these horses as heaven horses. Someone drew a picture of Eight Beautiful Horses in Liu Chao Dynasty. After then, many drawrs drew Eight Beautiful Horses in eachdynasty and these pictures were come down till tofay. The poet of Tang Dynasty, Bai Juyi wrote famous Eight Beautiful Horses poem, "King Mu Wang has Eight Beautiful Horses,the later generations like them and draw pictures, the back of horse likes dragon and the neck likes elephant, the bone and muscle are strong and fat. The can run them thousand miles each day like flying; where did King Mu Wang ride to? Go everywhere in the world without having rest"

Monkey: It stands for longevity. “White monkey and present fruits” is the dermatoglyphic pattern used for greeting birthday. “ Appointing the marquis on the back of horse”(“ma shang feng hou” in Chinese tone)----namely a monkey is riding on the back of horse with its hand holding in golden medal, is the dermatoglyphic pattern of greeting promoting.

Deer: It is a kind of lucky beast in the people’s stories. White deer is the most costful, which has a long life and is regarded as the horse for riding by celestial being. Because of the partial tone with “lu” letter in Chinese, so deer often stands for winning promotion and getting rich. Deer is often concomitant with crane in design, which means “the world is all spring” (“lu he tong chun” in Chinese tone) (“liu he” in Chinese is partial tone with “ deer crane”-- “The world: east, south, west, north, sky, earth”) . Deer often appears in Taoism design, shows the fairyland meaning of standing aloof from the worldly affairs and quiet and inaction.

Lion: Lion, who is famous for “ the king in hundreds beasts”, stands for courageous and invincible might. It was always regards as festive and lucky animal in Chinese folk. In Buddhism, lion is law’s patron saint.

Tiger:

Tiger skin veins
The tiger is the first among the animals and the king of the forest. It was called "five fairy-tale animals" with dragon, phoenix, kylin and tortoise together. At the initial time of the Tibet, the seat of Chief of tribe was covered with the tiger skin. Since Zhongsi appeared, the Tibet people kintted with tiger skin and Zhongsi together. These old patterns in Tibet were only used in the imperial court, temples and noblemen families to symbolize the sovereign power. The “power sticks” rolled with tiger veins hanging on the two sides of the gates of Dongriguang palace and Potala Palace symbolized sovereign power and these sticks could also eliminate the civls.


XIV. Kylin dermatoglyphic pattern
Kylin is a favonian lucky beast in chinese ancient fable. As it is said that it is the head of four numen, the king of hundreds beasts. Its appearance shows that the world is in peace and sage emperor will be appearing. Kylin is a artistic visualization that can deliver themselves of people’s ideal like dragon and phoenix. So kylin artistic visualization takes on some uncertainty, but lion’s head, flesh, the deer like body, even hoof, long tail, all body’s squama are the main feature of most of kylin artistic visualization. “kylin dedicates book”, “kylin gives sons” is the usual theme.


XV. Right angle dermatoglyphic pattern
Right angle dermatoglyphic pattern is a traditional ornamental dermatoglyphic pattern having geometrical shape, which is based on crisscross, makes each end clockwise right-angle twisting, then connects them with all sides and compose ornamental, so it could express the meaning of carried everything before. Discal silk ribbon is a kind of dermatoglyphic pattern by using silk ribbon strap crossing connection. Because it is continuous and protean, so it has the meaning of luck.

Circle dermatoglyphic pattern: Its configuration is like the “hui” letter in Chinese, so it is named. It means continuous return to boundlessness. Mostly it is the side lines in picture. Using the form of both continuum shows the eternal feeling of samsara.

T-shaped dermatoglyphic patternc: Its configuration is like the “ding” letter in Chinese, so it is named. T-shaped lines ornaments the big sides in the forms of its simple, stretched, continuous line beauty. So it has the continuous and everlasting meaning. Otherwise, “ding” in Chinese has the haleness meaning. The book “Historic notes” was recorded: “ The “ding” letter shows everything is haleness.” So the “ding” in Chinese has the meaning of blessing health.

卐“Wan”dermatoglyphic pattern in Chinese: It was a kind of invocation, phylactery or religionary sign. Usually it was thought the indicia stood for “sun” or “fire”. In sanscrit, the “wan” means “concentrate luck and fine affability ”. In Buddhism, it is thought that it is the lucky omen at sakyamuni’s breast. In Tang Dynasty, the only empress Wu Zetian (624—705) in china history constituted nineteen strange words (“wan” in Chinese was one of them) and ordained “wan” pronouncing, which is the meaning of luck and prosperity. “Wan” has many meanings, which has the same meaning as myriad, so it also has the lucky meaning. “Wan” in Chinese is usually used to make side lines, and all “wan” is intituled the endlessness, has the meaning of looking forward long blessedness.

Double happiness
(“shuangxi” in Chinese): It is the art word structured from the two “xi” letter in Chinese interlocking. It has the auspicious meaning of double happiness coming. It is widely applied in traditional artistic ornamental pattern in china



XVI. Birds dermatoglyphic pattern
Birds dermatoglyphic pattern is the usual traditional ornament dermatoglyphic pattern in Beijing’s type carpet. Usually used birds have: carne, peafowl and mandarin duck et al. These kinds of dermatoglyphic patterns are mostly associated with mountains and water, flowers and trees for using. Except for beautiful body of these birds, they have the lucky meaning. For example, carne, as it was said that it was longevity bird, was often used for celestial being’s horse (or beast) for riding. It and deer combined stands for “the world is full of spring”, which means lucky and a long life. Mandarin duck, which was named as suited bird in ancient, often stands for husband and wife devotion, domestic harmony.

Crane: It stands for longevity. “Huainan zi ?Yuangui zhou” was written: “Crane can live for a long time, so he can visit everywhere”.
Butterfly: It is the same tone as “die” letter in Chinese. Age over seventy or eighty refers to “die” letter. Butterfly imbibes its meaning to show longevity. Butterfly dermatoglyphic pattern is one of our country’s traditional design dermatoglyphic pattern . Butterfly dermatoglyphic pattern as a ornament can be gone back the periods of Nan and Bei. Its meaning is husband and wife devotion, domestic harmony, happiness. Butterfly can be combined with cat and cutting branches flowers to form a new dermatoglyphic pattern. Here butterfly stands for longeyous old man, so it has the meaning of presenting birthday for old man.

Butterfly: It is the same tone as “die” letter in Chinese. Age over seventy or eighty refers to “die” letter. Butterfly imbibes its meaning to show longevity. Butterfly dermatoglyphic pattern is one of our country’s traditional design dermatoglyphic pattern . Butterfly dermatoglyphic pattern as a ornament can be gone back the periods of Nan and Bei. Its meaning is husband and wife devotion, domestic harmony, happiness. Butterfly can be combined with cat and cutting branches flowers to form a new dermatoglyphic pattern. Here butterfly stands for longeyous old man, so it has the meaning of presenting birthday for old man.



XVII.The dermatoglyphic patterns showing Confucianism: Bogu, Official career improving
Confucianism, Taoism and Buddhism are the religion thought having great influence on ancient china. many china carpet are deeply affected by them.

“Buogu” dermatoglyphic pattern ---“Buogu” letter came from the book ---“Xuanhe buogu pictures” that is about ancient utensil hidden in palace which were composited drawing by Hui Zong emperor’s order in Song Dynasty. So subsequently, the ornamental drawings describing bronze ware, jade article, figuline and stone were named as “Bogu dermatoglyphic pattern”. Sometimes add flower, vegetable and fruit to intersperse Bogu dermatoglyphic pattern .
“Bogu”: It refers to utensil in ancient treasures in study. We are familiar with Bogu dermatoglyphic pattern such as ancient vase, jade article, ancient cooking vessel, ancient paint et al. Bogu dermatoglyphic pattern romances a culture atmosphere of well-read stock and was loved by literator and scholar-bureaucrat. It stands for respecting for traditional Confucian culture in china, delivering Chinese of the mentality of respecting traditionally ancient culture.

Mugwort leaves: It is a kind of perennial herbage, has fragrance, can make into moxa, and is used for acupuncture. In folk, It is regarded as a kind of anima plant. Its letter was used for the older honorific title in ancient china, so it stands for the meaning of “honour” and “dearness”. “Ai” letter is the same sound as “love” in Chinese. “Love” was the main meaning of Confucian “benevolence”. It embodies the Confucianism connotation from both “benevolence” and “courtesy”.

Official career improving
: Its dermatoglyphic pattern is three halberds inserted vase. “Vase” has the same sound as “even”(read “ping” in Chinese), “three halberds” has the same as “three ranks”(read “san ji” in Chinese), so people had the meaning of “Coequally promoting three ranks”. The Confucianists pursue official career improving. Confucius said: “people studying the first-class will have official career”. So “Coequally promoting three ranks” can popularly explain Confucian philosophy.
Confucius( B.C.551—B.C.479) set up Confucian doctrine. He is the most famous great politician, great ideologist, great educationist in china history. When he was alive, some people addressed him “saint”. It is said that he has three thousands students, among which there are seventy-two versed students accomplished in poem, book, courtesy, justice. During the whole feudalization after he was dead, Confucian doctrine always was in the first class. The feudal monarch respected him as ancestor teacher, and prostrated reverently him. The esteem for him seemed adoration for religion. The pillars in Confucian temple are double dragons embracing pillar, but in imperial palace are single dragon embracing pillar. It is evident that Confucian lies in status over monarch’s.
At the side of Confucian doctrine political viewpoint, his political viewpoint lied in the only primary. The reason is that Confucian’s thought is “salvation” rather than “renounce the world”. What Confucian is concern about is not God, devil, religion and theology rather than how to manage human being, mend oneself and practise. Confucian said: “ If we can’t manage human being, how can we manage devil?” The thought was fit for gerentocratic willing, and his doctrine was the useful method of controlling country.
The base setting up Confucian political theory is “courtesy and affability” and “mercy and personal loyalty”. “Lead people by virtue, control country by courtesy” is Confucian’s the highest political viewpoint. “Virtue” refers to mercy and personal loyalty. What is the meaning of mercy and personal loyalty is the ethic of cherishing people and behaving. “Law” refers to severely hierachical ethical system such as “monarch-monarch, liegeman-liegeman, father-father, son-son, male-female are different”. Confucian thought that only restriction through “law” is not enough, there must be companied with “affability ”. “Affability ” makes terms from heart. Like this, namely forcibly restriction in the forms of“law” and added inner emotive blending in the forms of “affability ”, so relationship between human being can be harmonization.
By setting up human’s relationship in the forms of “courtesy and affability” and “mercy and personal loyalty”, the world would become peace. So Confucian thought “courtesy and affability” and “mercy and personal loyalty” was ultimate principle governing country and harmonizing family.
In order to realistic the political viewpoint of “courtesy and affability” and “mercy and personal loyalty”, Confucian very emphasized education. He thought perfecting personality and setting up “courtesy and affability” must be though study and thought. So he advocated “erudition from article”, “Learning must often review”. Confucian said: “Only learning but not considering, then puzzle, only considering but not learning, then idleness”. He did his best to reach to understand logic by the manners of “make oneself become pundit from articles” to realistic “restrict oneself by courtesy”, consequently, ultimately reach to “mercy” thought from “strictly request oneself to reach courtesy”.

Ruyi
----made of bamboo, jade, born et al. an ganoderma lucidum or cloudy-shaped head, slightly crooked shank. Ruyi came from India introduction our country. It is Buddhism utensil. As it was said that first Ruyi was the utensil that was held in hand by shaman, who wrote something on ruyi for avoiding forgetting. Since Ruyi was introduced china, It was liked by monarch, who was delighted in Ruyi. The monarch of Qing Dynasty ever used Ruyi. Ruyi is the symbol of imperial power. Otherwise, the name of Ruyi is lucky, so it is regarded as luck.
Ruyi dermatoglyphic pattern is usually painted along with pen, ingot dermatoglyphic pattern . Using their partial tone can become the lucky meaning of “must satisfy one’s willings”.

Everything is Success: Ruyi is usually painted along with two persimmons. Their partial tone is “everything is Success”.



XVIII. The dermatoglyphic pattern showing Taoist thought: “yin” and “yang”, the eight diagrams.

“Yin” and “yang”, the eight diagrams: In Taoist opinion, the world was divided into ideal world and natural world. Absoluteness of natural world is general. Tao produced “yin” and “yang” to dominate natural world. The symbol of “yin” and “yang” is ¤. Absoluteness of ideal world is “Taiji”. “Taiji” produced two ceremonies to dominate ideal world. Two ceremonies are softness and firmness. The symbol of softness is ___. The symbol of firmness is----. Origin of the two kinds of symbols had different parlance, some said they came from ancient knot letters, others said they was the symbol of male genitals and female genitalia. Difference of two ceremonies consequently produced four images. Four images more produced eight diagrams: qian, dui, zhe, li, zhen, kun, kan, gen in Chinese.
The origin of “Yin” and “Yang”, the eight diagrams is following:
Natural world----Tao (sightless)----“yin” and “yang” (sightless)----images (eyeable, immateriality)---- utensil( eyeable, materiality);
Ideal world----“taiji” (sightless)----two ceremonies (sightless)----four images( eyeable, immateriality)----the eight diagrams (eyeable, materiality).
The Taoism thought natural world and ideal world lie in continuous change and association each other, thus which makes all movement in the whole world. Holding the movement is through augury of diagram pattern to guess if the future is good or ill luck, from which the Taoism educed the method of governing world. So the eight diagrams are thought having supernatural bewitchment. During long periods, even today, some people in Chinese uncultured region regard augury as Gods.
In Zhou Dynasty(B.C. the eleventh century ---B.C.476), under a son of heaven, set up official and koradji. The official managed government, the koradji foretold providence. The ancient people thought monarch came from the God to govern human being, so they named him as a son of heaven. Now that a son of heaven came from God, then the action, which a son of heaven continuously foretold providence to induce people to obey it, had sovereign political meaning.
Magnum opus of koradji is “book of changes”, which is the Taoism origin. Magnum opus of official is “book of shu”, which is the Confucian father. The tenet of “book of changes” is polling Gods, superstition “yin” and “yang”, returning simplicity to reality. The tenet of “book of shu” is lecture government, pondering life, pursuing official career.
What is “Yi” is the universal movement deducing from change between “yin” and “yang” in nature. Hunting for the mysterious movement system became the philosophical proposition by the Taoism hard pondering. The Taoism thought: “Body upword is named as “dao” in Chinese, body downword is named as “qi” in Chinese.” The “dao” refers to universal inner principle in “yin” and “yang” forming. The “qi” refers to formed material things according to “dao” principle. From “dao” to “qi” is the realistic international course what is held by Taoism.
The most successful person in Taoism thought is “Lao zi” (who lived in about B.C. 400 or so). The main spirit “Lao zi” thought is “inaction”, “liking quiet”, “impunity”, “unselfishness”, making concessions to avoid trouble, unsharpening the contradiction between things, reaching to peace of the whole world in easy and relaxative rhythm by the method of do-nothing and without nonfeasance. “Lao zi” was esteemed for the founder of a school of learning by Taoism established by his offsping.



XIX. The dermatoglyphic pattern showing Buddhism thought
It is said that the periods about Buddhism introduction china is during the periods of Donghan ming emperor “yongping” the tenth ( A.D.67). India shaman Jayemoten and Zhufalan along with Ming emperor’s envoy, arrived in the city “Luoyang” with carrying lections on the back of write horses. Hanming emperor set up the write horse temple which is the first one in our country in city “Luoyang” for them in order to commemorate them. Last years of Donghan periods, there has been many sutras introduction our country. According to biography’s recordation, Huan emperor especially liked the Buddhist ceremony. In palace, he offered sacrifices for golden figure of Buddha. Until the Weijin periods, because of chaos caused by war, famine, wandering about and scattering, suffered common people began to pursue the Buddhism reincarnation happiness. Governor actively advocated the Buddhism for appeasing common people. So Buddhism has the chance to surging forward in china. At that time, in China, appeared some Buddhism center such as ChangAn, JianKang, LuShan, LuoYang et al. Hence, Buddhism was continuously compatible with Buddhism and Taoism in china. For example, “Emptiness” in Buddhism is relative to “nihility” in Taosim, “lucky” of “lucky led all living creatures” in Buddhism is consistent with “benevolence” of “ Wanting to establish oneself must be benevolent to other people; wanting to become a thoroughly understood person must benevolent to other people” in Taoism. They came into being Dhyana system which was adapted to feudatorial patriarchal clan system in china in manners of cultivating oneself according to a religious doctrine, increasingly finished Buddhism cause in china, and produced the Buddhism branch in chins which had great influence on china.
In Chinese carpet design, the dermatoglyphic pattern showing Buddhism thought is “Eight treasure of Buddhism” which is Buddhism eight cimelia. Each cimelia stands for a kind of Buddhism tenet.

Buddha's warrior attendant's stick
It is a kind of Buddha power utensil called “Ba Zhe Luo” being Lama’s power stick. It was a kind of weapon in ancient India, later it became Buddha power utensil, being a kind of “firebolt” used by Indian divinity ”Yin Tuo Luo” and it was often used for Lama religion ceremony symbolized the power for controlling the transmigration or people's life. The Buddha’s warrior attendant's stick symbolized male's virilia and it was also the symbol of convenience and mercy.

“Eight treasure of Buddhism” refers to:

Triton---Buddhism thought triton can blow Bodhisattva’s lucky dulcet sound.

Magic wheel
----It stands for magic wheel rotating, can put down disaster.

Treasure umbrella
----It can open or close freely, widely protect all flesh and avoid disaster.

Treasure lid----It collects the whole medicine in the world, can heal the wounded and rescue the dying.

Lotus flower
----It can make people throw away grime and accept cleanliness, isn’t contaminated by dustiness.

Goldfish----Its life is liveliness. It can disentangle bad disaster and make life blooming and get rid of unspiritual tribulation.

Metempsychosis----It has a thorough power understanding logic and forevermore brightly lit. It can make people thoroughly understanding anything.

Treasure vase
----It can be full of lucky and wisdom, perfect, make people having immense lucky and wisdom and don’t suffer the disaster forever.




XX. Lace, angle flower dermatoglyphic pattern
Lace dermatoglyphic pattern is a kind of zonal dermatoglyphic pattern usually used in carpet. Its feature is continuity and not uniform. In design, it is named as two square continuous design. It is mainly used for four sides ornament in carpet. Angle flower dermatoglyphic pattern is also named as “angle coign dermatoglyphic pattern ”. This kind of dermatoglyphic pattern is specially used for ornamenting four angles in carpet.



XXI. Decoration carpet dermatoglyphic pattern

Decorationc carpet dermatoglyphic pattern is also named as foreign flower dermatoglyphic pattern . It is a kind of recherché carpet dermatoglyphic pattern that was produced by using for reference from France classical aulic design after 1920 in Chinese carper business. Main design uses blooming peony, china rose, rose et al. as the central bunch flowers, palmated leaves as minor role. Composition of a picture is vivid, well-proportioned and symmetrical. Design is dealt with by using the method of chiaroscuro. so the whole carpet takes on the design having hundreds flowers blooming.



XXII. Flower leaves dermatoglyphic pattern

In flower leaves dermatoglyphic pattern , usually used flower leaves have: water lily leaves, morning glory leaves, peony leaves, China rose leaves, melon leaves, lotus leaves, bamboo leaves, pine leaves et al. Also have metabolic leaves, especially wave-shaped leaves, where growing branches, blooming and germinating. Its lamina shows curly shape, so venation also circumgyrate. It has hearty life and dynamic.



XXIII. Natural landscape dermatoglyphic pattern

Stone: It stands for firmness. In carpet design, except for steep ornament meaning, stone veins also means longevity and firmness. Great poet Su shi (1030—1101) in Shong Dynasty said: “plum blossom’s pretty from colder, Bamboo’s longevity from thinner, stone’s veins from ugly, but they are three good friends”. So people often paint plum blossom, bamboo and stone together.

Mountain and sea: Mountain and sea dermatoglyphic pattern are often blended. Both of them can not only set off, but also imply the meaning of “ longevity mountain and lucky sea”. The best blessing words in Chinese tradition is “ Luck is like east sea, longevity is like south mountain”.

Thunder
: It stands for stateliness and lordliness. The ancients said: “the roll of thunder is like sound of Kingdom of Heaven’s drumming; hear the sound away from five hundred miles, so shock the whole world.” Thunder veins is often used for ornamenting heaven and earth of design, so both sides are continuous.

Water: The origin of Human being comes from the Changjiang River, so Human being are closely linked with water. The first natural material that Human being got to know was water. At present, water lines is one of the most ancient dermatoglyphic pattern . Ceaselessly caroling sliding water, pouring and roaring onflow stand for vital life and enthusiasm. Water is the best theme of writing poem and painting. Since thousands and hundreds years, water has been singing and describing.

Fire
: It stands for luminosity and youth. Fire is the important natural power that was first controlled and used by Human being. It illuminated Human being’s course. During remote antiquity, fire lines had been adored by Human being.





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